The conditions sought in filters used as countermeasures against noise in sensors are described below.
Although single-chip type sensors are available in a variety of types and product names, there are no large differences in the filters required as countermeasures for the noise that causes malfunctions.
This is because the two conditions sought in a filter are common to any sensor.
The filter needs to be mounted in the vicinity of the sensor to be effective.
Filters having a high insertion loss over a wide bandwidth from low frequencies to high frequencies are suitable for use in power line noise countermeasures.
Countermeasures that use only capacitors will require a capacitor with a large capacitance value that covers the low frequency side, and a low ESL capacitor for obtaining a high frequency insertion loss.
Combining capacitors and an inductor provides the advantage of a remarkable increase of the insertion loss. Surpassing the use of an inductor, a more effective filter against noise will be obtained by arranging sufficient capacitance at the sensor side in a multi-level configuration.
Noise countermeasures for (data/clock) signal lines require the design of filters having low insertion loss at the signal frequencies that should be passed.
Countermeasures that only use capacitors are possible when noise levels are small or when the frequencies of the signal and the noise are separated; however, especially when the signal frequency and the noise frequency are close, it becomes necessary to configure filters having sharp insertion loss characteristics by combining inductors and capacitors.
When an inductor is inserted in a specific line only, the line becomes unbalanced and conversion to normal mode (a potential difference) occurs; therefore, there is the likelihood of the malfunctions getting worse. When inserting inductors, it is important that the same part number is used in all of the lines.
*Ferrite beads, an inductor type filter, not only block noise with their high impedance, but also absorb noise energy as a loss by the ferrite, so higher noise countermeasure effectiveness can be expected.